Les lieux de mémoire victimaire en Europe : une culture commune et concurrente
THE PLACES OF VICTIMARY MEMORY IN EUROPE: A COMMON AND COMPETITIVE CULTURE
PublisherUniverzita Karlova, Filozofická fakulta
SourceSvět literatury, 2020, Special Issue, 160-176
victimary memory, Europe, Shoah, genocide, Srebrenica, Muslim religion
Since the 1990s, memorials and museums devoted to the victims of the massacres perpetrated in the twentieth century have multiplied in Europe, then in the world. This social, political and cultural fact is new. It reveals a radical change in historical representation where for centuries, only the victorious hero was celebrated in official history. In this context, specific memory sites, called “victim memory places”, have emerged. The Second World War is the turning point in this history of memory. The memory of the Holocaust is the model. But other memories, often competing, have also developed recently.This study proposes to record this break in the long duration of the history. Where does this memory come from, which is attached to the victims rather than to the victors? What are the main stages of its emergence? Today, does the memory of the victim gather or oppose the Europeans? As a first step, we will try to understand why the memorials in tribute to the victims did not appear rather, despite a living tradition of victimhood. In a second step, we will analyze the causes that explain the advent of places of memory victim in Europe: the rupture of the world wars, the Shoah and the fall of the Berlin Wall. We will examine how this memory can be an issue at once symbolic and political. Lastly, through the example of the Srebrenica Genocide Memorial, we will see how this tradition has been interpreted in the light of the Muslim religion.