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dc.contributor.authorHedánek, Jiří
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-16T09:51:06Z
dc.date.available2019-01-16T09:51:06Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.issn2571-1393
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.11956/104492
dc.description.abstract“Guttural” is a vaguely or variably defined term in the phonology of ancient Semitic languages, especially Tiberian Hebrew. It can include laryngeals, pharyngeals, epiglottals, uvulars, and sometimes postvelars; pharyngealized emphatics should be covered too, though they are not; and often, inexplicably, all rhotics are included, even though only uvular ones should be eligible. In general, “guttural” seems to be a purely phonology-based concept, out of step with phonetic considerations. Sounds of speech, however, are more than abstract nodes in charts; they have material substance, which both affects and is affected by neighboring sounds. Over time, a secondary manifestation can assume the phonological position of a sound, gradually making the sound itself redundant and prone to disappearance. This may well have been the origin of the disputed Semitic *ġ, provided that a secondary articulation, velarization or possibly pharygealization, took over and became a full-fledged [ɣ]. If teachers employ the inherited term “gutturals”, they sometimes tend to present them as imposing [a]-vowels wherever possible. This is a phonetically unsubstantiated claim, as laryngeals impose no vocalic colour; uvulars and postvelars would enhance [o] and [u], if anything at all; epiglottals may front the back vowels (i.e. towards [e]) and lower only the front vowels; the inherent [ɑ]-colour of pharyngeals seems to lag behind rather than anticipate (which might be language-specific); and pharyngealized consonants, excluded from gutturals in any case, are observed to move vowels back rather than down. Articulations “behind the tongue”, so crucial for Semitic phonologies, present numerous complexities: difficult to observe, frequently substituting for one another, and involving issues of terminology as well as interpretation of scripts. Here too, modern phonetic studies can furnish acoustic and physiological data to support hypotheses about languages of the ancient world.en_US
dc.publisherUniverzita Karlova, Filozofická fakultacs_CZ
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/
dc.sourceChatreššar, 2018, 2, 5-15cs_CZ
dc.source.urihttps://chatressar.ff.cuni.cz
dc.subjectAfroasiatic languagesen_US
dc.subjectSemitic languagesen_US
dc.subjectTiberian Hebrewen_US
dc.subjectphoneticsen_US
dc.subjectgutturalsen_US
dc.subjectlaryngealsen_US
dc.subjectpharyngealsen_US
dc.subjectradicalsen_US
dc.subjectepiglottalsen_US
dc.subjectuvularsen_US
dc.subjectpostvelarsen_US
dc.subjectemphaticsen_US
dc.subjectejectivesen_US
dc.subjectvocal foldsen_US
dc.subjectglottal plosiveen_US
dc.subjectglottalizationen_US
dc.subjectlaryngealizationen_US
dc.subjectpharyngealizationen_US
dc.subjectvelarizationen_US
dc.titleGutturals in phonetic termsen_US
dc.typeVědecký článekcs_CZ
dc.typeResearch Articleen_US
uk.abstract.en“Guttural” is a vaguely or variably defined term in the phonology of ancient Semitic languages, especially Tiberian Hebrew. It can include laryngeals, pharyngeals, epiglottals, uvulars, and sometimes postvelars; pharyngealized emphatics should be covered too, though they are not; and often, inexplicably, all rhotics are included, even though only uvular ones should be eligible. In general, “guttural” seems to be a purely phonology-based concept, out of step with phonetic considerations. Sounds of speech, however, are more than abstract nodes in charts; they have material substance, which both affects and is affected by neighboring sounds. Over time, a secondary manifestation can assume the phonological position of a sound, gradually making the sound itself redundant and prone to disappearance. This may well have been the origin of the disputed Semitic *ġ, provided that a secondary articulation, velarization or possibly pharygealization, took over and became a full-fledged [ɣ]. If teachers employ the inherited term “gutturals”, they sometimes tend to present them as imposing [a]-vowels wherever possible. This is a phonetically unsubstantiated claim, as laryngeals impose no vocalic colour; uvulars and postvelars would enhance [o] and [u], if anything at all; epiglottals may front the back vowels (i.e. towards [e]) and lower only the front vowels; the inherent [ɑ]-colour of pharyngeals seems to lag behind rather than anticipate (which might be language-specific); and pharyngealized consonants, excluded from gutturals in any case, are observed to move vowels back rather than down. Articulations “behind the tongue”, so crucial for Semitic phonologies, present numerous complexities: difficult to observe, frequently substituting for one another, and involving issues of terminology as well as interpretation of scripts. Here too, modern phonetic studies can furnish acoustic and physiological data to support hypotheses about languages of the ancient world.cs_CZ
uk.internal-typeuk_publication
dc.description.startPage5
dc.description.endPage15
dcterms.isPartOf.nameChatreššarcs_CZ
dcterms.isPartOf.journalYear2018
dcterms.isPartOf.journalVolume2018
dcterms.isPartOf.journalIssue2


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